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By 1932, the State Planning Committee ratified the first estimated figures of the economic plan of the Birobidjan region as a separate economic unit.The Organization for Jewish Colonisation in the Soviet Union, a Jewish Communist organization in North America, successfully encouraged the immigration of some US residents, such as the family of spy George Koval, which arrived in 1932.

The Soviets also wanted to offer an alternative to Zionism, the establishment of Palestine as a Jewish homeland.To make colonization more enticing, the Soviet government allowed private land-ownership.This led to many non-Jews settling in the oblast to get a free farm.In 1991, after the breakup of the Soviet Union, the Jewish Autonomous Oblast moved from the jurisdiction of Khabarovsk Krai to the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation.However, by that time, most of the Jews had emigrated from the Soviet Union and the remaining Jews constituted fewer than 2% of the local population.General Pavel Sudoplatov writes about the government′s rationale behind picking the area in the Far East: ″The establishment of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast in Birobidzhan in 1928 was ordered by Stalin only as an effort to strengthen the Far Eastern border region with an outpost, not as a favour to the Jews.The area was constantly penetrated by Chinese and White Russian terrorist groups, and the idea was to shield the territory by establishing a settlement whose inhabitants would be hostile to White Russian émigrés, especially the Cossacks.In 1898 construction began on the regional section of the Trans-Siberian Railway connecting Chita and Vladivostok.The project produced a large influx of new settlers and the foundation of new settlements.At the time, there were only about 30,000 inhabitants in the area, mostly descendants of Trans-Baikal Cossacks resettled there by tsarist authorities, Koreans, Kazakhs, and the Tungusic peoples.The Soviet government wanted to increase settlement in the remote Soviet Far East, especially along the vulnerable border with China.

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