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Mandating work

1817: Welsh manufacturer and labor rights activist Robert Owen coins the phrase "Eight hours labor, eight hours recreation, eight hours rest," dividing the day into three equal eight-hour parts. According to Lichtenstein, American workers adopted a similar slogan in the years following the Civil War.

The idea did not take hold in Europe, but it made its way to the U. 1866: The now-defunct National Labor Union asks Congress to pass a law mandating the eight-hour workday.

Their efforts ultimately fails, but helps put labor reform on the political map. Grant issues a proclamation that guarantees an eight-hour workday without a decrease in pay. 1880s to early 1900s: The movement to reduce a worker's standard hours continues to grow.

1867: Workers who were "exhausted by 12 to 14 hours a day of work, six days a week," call for the Illinois Legislature to limit workdays to eight hours, according to the Chicago Historical Society. In 1898 the United Mine Workers win an eight-hour day.

In a statement, Ford writes, "It is high time to rid ourselves of the notion that leisure for workmen is either lost time or a class privilege." 1937: Auto workers from General Motors strike at a plant in Flint, Michigan, protesting working conditions.

Negotiations between GM and the workers ultimately help reduce worker hours. On June 25, Congress passes the Fair Labor Standards Act, which limits the workweek to 44 hours, or 8.8 hours per day.

A 2014 national Gallup poll put the average number at 47 hours per week, or 9.4 hours per day, with many saying they work 50 hours per week.

In demanding, competitive industries like tech and finance, professionals work in excess of 60 hours a week as a rule, and are available constantly by smartphone.

If this bill passes the Senate – and right now, odds look quite good that it will be – then we could see the transfer of thousands of surplus M1911 handguns to the US civilian market via the CMP.

Although these guns are likely to be well-worn, they still could have considerable value as collector’s pieces, inexpensive shooting irons, and workpieces for customization.

More details on the bill, and comments made by its sponser Rep.

Rogers from Alabama, is available via an article at

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