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Bind9 slave not updating

The transfer is deferred (queued to be retried later).

maintains a cache of unreachable masters to which it refers when handling a zone refresh.

When a master nameserver is updated (irrespective of the mechanism through which this happens), the working contents of the zone held in memory that have changed need to be transferred to the other servers that are authoritative for that zone (the slave servers). There are two types of zone transfer - full (AXFR) and incremental (IXFR). An Incremental zone transfer is a list of changes that, when applied, bring the slave zone up to date.

Sometimes this is due to the TCP connection between the master and slave being reset but it can also be due to the master being inaccessible from the slave due to routing or firewall issues.

The outcome is doubly bad: Note also that when attempting a zone refresh there is a fallback from UDP to TCP on the SOA query.

On the server providing the zone transfers you might also see some relevant messages logged from category client.

This means that a zone transfer was started but failed.

This is another problem relating to TCP tuning - in this case a warning logged on the master server which should be providing the zone update.

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There is a tunable limit (tcp-clients) on the number of TCP 'clients' that can be handled concurrently - this is shared between client queries that are received over TCP and zone transfers.

Whilst there are mechanisms in place to alert slaves that they should check to see if a zone transfer is needed, the transfer itself is always started by the slave.

Apart from when a server is restarted, or when rndc commands are used to force a zone transfer, there are two mechanisms that cause slave servers to check whether or not their copy of a zone is current.

If a zone refresh fails with a specific master (either during the query for the SOA or after querying and while attempting a subsequent zone transfer), then this master is cached as 'unreachable' for 10 minutes.

As of versions 9.6-ESV-R6, 9.7.5, 9.8.2 and 9.9.0 onwards implements an earlier removal of a master server from the unreachable cache if a notify is received from it.

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