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Dead head dating
It was part of the process of structuring, reinforcing, and defending hierarchical relationships between communities and individuals. On the left is a photograph of an upgraded, seven-head tray, from Papua New Guinea, early 1900s.
The display would have been hung on a wall in a communal men's house.
Subsequently, the Brooke dynasty expanded their territory from the first small Sarawak region to the present-day state of Sarawak.
The ritual, called pangngae, takes place at the conclusion of the rice-harvesting season.
It functions to bring an end to communal mourning for the deceased of the past year; express intercultural tensions and polemics; allow for a display of manhood; distribute communal resources; and resist outside pressures to abandon Mappurondo ways of life.
The Brooke government prohibited headhunting (ngayau in Iban language) and added penalties for disobeying the Rajah-led government decree.
During expeditions sanctioned by the Brooke government, they allowed headhunting.
The Wa tribe, whose domain straddles the Burma-China border, were once known to Europeans as the "Wild Wa" for their "savage" behavior. In Sarawak, the north-western region of the island of Borneo, James Brooke and his descendants established a colonial dynasty.
They eradicated headhunting in the hundred years before World War II.The Brooke government had to send three punitive expeditions in order to defeat Rentapi at his fortress on the top of Sadok Hill.The Iban conducted a third major migration, from upper Batang Ai region in the Batang Lupar region into Katibas and onward to Baleh/Mujong region in the upper Batang Rajang region.It occurred in Europe to the end of the Middle Ages in Ireland and the Anglo-Scottish border regions, and until the 19th century in Montenegro, Croatia, Albania, and western parts of Herzegovina.The headhunting practice has been the subject of intense study within the anthropological community, where scholars try to assess and interpret its social roles, functions, and motivations.Headhunting is the practice of taking and preserving a person's head after killing the person.Headhunting was practised in historic times in parts of Oceania, South Asia and Southeast Asia, West and Central Africa, Mesoamerica, and Europe.Italian anthropologist and explorer Elio Modigliani visited the headhunting communities in South Nias (an island to the west of Sumatra) in 1886; he wrote a detailed study of their society and beliefs. Kenneth George wrote about annual headhunting rituals that he observed among the Mappurondo religious minority, an upland tribe in the southwest part of the Indonesian island of Sulawesi.He found that the main purpose of headhunting was the belief that, if a man owned another person's skull, his victim would serve as a slave of the owner for eternity in the afterlife. Heads are not taken; instead, surrogate heads in the form of coconuts are used in a ritual ceremony.In Southeast Asia, anthropological writings have explored headhunting and other practises of the Murut, Ilongot, Igorot, Iban, Dayak, Berawan, Wana, and Mappurondo tribes.Among these groups, headhunting was usually a ritual activity rather than an act of war or feuding. Headhunting acted as a catalyst for the cessation of personal and collective mourning for the community's dead.